What does OPS stand for in baseball stats?

Baseball is a sport that is filled with a multitude of statistics and metrics used to evaluate player performance. One such metric that has gained popularity over the years is OPS. In this article, we will explore what OPS stands for, its components, how it is calculated, its importance as a performance metric, and its significance in the historical context of baseball.

What is OPS?

OPS stands for On-Base Plus Slugging. It is a sabermetric statistic that combines two important elements of a player’s offensive performance: their ability to get on base (On-Base Percentage or OBP) and their power (Slugging Percentage or SLG). OPS provides a comprehensive view of a player’s offensive capabilities by taking into account both their ability to reach base and their ability to hit for extra bases.

Components of OPS

To understand OPS, it is essential to grasp its two primary components: On-Base Percentage (OBP) and Slugging Percentage (SLG).

On-Base Percentage (OBP)

OBP measures a player’s ability to reach base safely. It calculates the ratio of times a player successfully reaches base (through hits, walks, or hit-by-pitches) to their total plate appearances. OBP reflects a player’s discipline, plate vision, and ability to get on base, making it an important factor in evaluating offensive performance.

Slugging Percentage (SLG)

Slugging Percentage measures a player’s power and ability to hit for extra bases. It calculates the total number of bases a player obtains from their hits and divides it by their total at-bats. SLG takes into account singles, doubles, triples, and home runs, giving more weight to hits that result in extra bases.

Calculating OPS

To calculate OPS, we simply add the player’s On-Base Percentage (OBP) and their Slugging Percentage (SLG) together. The formula for OPS is as follows:


Importance of OPS

OPS is highly regarded as a valuable performance metric in baseball. By combining both on-base skills and power, OPS provides a more comprehensive picture of a player’s offensive contributions. It allows for easy comparison between players and teams, helping to identify those who excel in both getting on base and hitting for power.

OPS as a Performance Metric

OPS is widely used by analysts, scouts, and fans to evaluate and compare players across different eras and positions. It offers a straightforward and concise measurement of a player’s offensive abilities, allowing for meaningful comparisons and assessments. Players with high OPS values are generally considered to be more productive and impactful in driving runs.

OPS+ and Its Significance

While OPS is a useful metric, it doesn’t take into account the varying offensive environments across different eras and ballparks. To address this limitation, OPS+ (OPS Plus) was introduced. OPS+ adjusts a player’s OPS by normalizing it to the league average and accounting for factors such as ballpark effects and era. A score of 100 is considered league average, and values above 100 indicate an above-average offensive performance.

OPS Leaders in Baseball

Over the years, several players have established themselves as leaders in OPS. Names like Babe Ruth, Barry Bonds, and Ted Williams are often associated with exceptional OPS numbers. These players consistently demonstrated a rare combination of on-base skills and power, solidifying their place among the greatest offensive forces in baseball history.

Limitations of OPS

While OPS is a valuable metric, it does have certain limitations. OPS doesn’t consider factors like stolen bases, baserunning, or situational hitting. Additionally, it treats OBP and SLG as equal contributors to overall offensive performance, despite the fact that getting on base is generally more valuable than hitting for power. It’s important to consider OPS in conjunction with other metrics to obtain a more holistic view of a player’s offensive capabilities.

Other Advanced Metrics

As baseball analytics have evolved, several advanced metrics have emerged to provide deeper insights into player performance. Metrics like wOBA (Weighted On-Base Average), wRC+ (Weighted Runs Created Plus), and WAR (Wins Above Replacement) offer more nuanced evaluations of offensive and overall player contributions. These metrics consider additional factors and provide a more refined analysis of a player’s value.

OPS in Historical Context

OPS has gained significance in the historical context of baseball. It allows for comparisons between players from different eras, enabling fans and analysts to appreciate the offensive prowess of legends who played before the advent of advanced metrics. OPS serves as a bridge between traditional statistics and modern analytics, providing a valuable tool for assessing historical performances.


OPS, which stands for On-Base Plus Slugging, is a powerful metric in baseball that combines a player’s ability to get on base (OBP) and hit for power (SLG). It offers a comprehensive view of a player’s offensive contributions, making it a popular and widely used performance metric. While OPS has its limitations, it remains an essential tool in evaluating players’ offensive capabilities and comparing their performance across different eras.


1. Can OPS be negative?

No, OPS cannot be negative as it is the sum of two positive values: On-Base Percentage (OBP) and Slugging Percentage (SLG). The lowest possible OPS value is 0.

2. Is a higher OPS always better?

Generally, a higher OPS indicates a more productive offensive performance. However, it’s important to consider other factors such as league average, ballpark effects, and the player’s position when evaluating the significance of OPS.

3. How do I interpret OPS+?

OPS+ is a statistic that compares a player’s OPS to the league average while accounting for factors like ballpark effects and era. A score of 100 is considered league average, and values above 100 indicate above-average offensive performance.

4. Are stolen bases included in OPS?

No, stolen bases are not included in OPS. OPS focuses on a player’s ability to get on base (OBP) and hit for power (SLG) but does not consider baserunning skills or stolen bases.

5. How often is OPS used in baseball analysis?

OPS is a widely used metric in baseball analysis and is considered one of the fundamental statistics for evaluating offensive performance. It is used by analysts, scouts, and fans to compare players, identify leaders, and assess overall offensive contributions.

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