What is the Internet?

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And what exactly is the World Wide Web, and how protected is the stability of its functioning?

Internet, what a familiar word today. A whole generation has already grown up that does not know the times when the Internet did not exist. Many people encounter it every day, some use it from time to time, but some spend" entangled " in its web forever, day and night. Now it is a huge repository of various information, but what can I say, it is a huge knowledge base of modern humanity, where you can find everything from a magnetic generator patented by an enterprising German and quietly riveting (before his arrest) unparalleled units in his garage, ending with essays on any topic. It all depends on the taste and needs of an individual.

So what is the Internet really like and how does it work? And will it work in such a turbulent period of global cataclysms, which includes the current humanity? Let's try to analyze this issue together.

Simply put, the Internet is a set of interconnected computer networks, and users ' computers are connected to these networks.

Data exchange between users on the network is carried out over previously laid physical networks belonging to several multinational corporations, namely IBM, Verizon, AT&T, UUNET, Level 3, Qwest, and Sprint. These seven corporations are the main Internet providers, which means that everyone who wants to access the global network, after all, deals with them.

At the dawn of the "world wide web", long ago in 1961, the agency of the US Department of Defense responsible for developing new technologies for the armed forces, DARPA (English Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency — the agency for advanced defense research projects), was given the task to create a network between computers through which it is possible to exchange data. After several years of work, the first prototype of the Internet was created, called ARPANET, which later began to be used for data exchange between the UCLA Network Testing Center, the Stanford Research Institute, the University of Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah.

Starting in 1973, the Internet began its triumphant march across the planet. The first countries to join the data exchanges were England and Norway. After 2 years, ARPANET was named "experimental network" and was taken over by DCA (Defense Communication Agency – Agency for the Protection of Communications), which is now called DISA (Defense Information Systems Agency— Agency for the Defense of Information Systems, renamed in 1991).

The logo speaks for itself, and those who are familiar with the book" AllatRa " can also see the hidden symbolism in the subtext of this image.

In 1983, the US Department of Defense announced the completion of research, and the TCP/IP data exchange protocol standard was introduced.

1984 was the year of the introduction of the so-called "domain name system" - DNS.

Further, the Internet grew, developed, transformed, and new nodes and networks were added to it, and by 2001 the number of users exceeded 530 million, and by mid-2015 their number reached 3.3 billion. human.

It turns out that now half of the world's inhabitants use the capabilities of the "World Wide Web", but here the question of system fault tolerance arises. In any system, there are bottlenecks, excluding which the entire system will fail. So in the Internet system, as critical for its operation, special attention is paid to the so-called root systems DNS servers. The question immediately arises-what kind of animals are these? DNS is a list of matching site names to their IP addresses. Root DNS servers contain information about top-level domains, are the main ones in the system, and are marked from A to M (from a.root-servers.net up to m.root-servers.net) - this results in exactly 13 (!) servers. Physically, there may be more of them (at the moment, about 200, but there are still 13 incoming addresses, no more, no less. It turns out such a circle of power. But officially, this number of servers is due to the previously introduced UDP packet restriction (which DNS servers communicate with) of 512 bytes, so only 13 servers could be placed in the DNS response. Interestingly, the UDP protocol for data exchange between DNS servers was developed back in 1980, even at the stage of testing the future Internet network, and has not yet been changed.

Here is an interesting layout of the above root servers.

As of 2002, 9 root servers were located in the United States:

I couldn't find a later drawing. But according to information from the Internet (well, from where else ;)) in the United States, there was one more root DNS serverless. On April 4, 2012, it was announced that Ru-Center, together with ICANN Corporation, has installed one of the 13 L-Root DNS servers in Novosibirsk, Russia.

What kind of beast is ICANN-a supposedly non-profit corporation (funny, isn't it?) It was created with the participation of the US government in 1998 to regulate issues related to domain data. The dark horse, which raises a number of questions and most importantly – for what funds it exists, since it is non-commercial, but the link to the participation of the US government in its creation, answers the question about the sources of funding. After all, from the very beginning, the Internet came out, in fact, from the bowels of the defense department of this country. It should come as no surprise, of course, that the U.S. Department of Commerce, represented by the National Telecommunications and Information Administration Administration (NTIA), the historical administrator of the DNS, in March 2014, with the cooperation of ICANN and Verisign Corporation, essentially completed the last stage of DNS privatization, as outlined by the U.S. government back in the 1997 year (for those who know English — //www.ntia.doc.gov/press-release/2014/ntia-announces-intent-transition-key-internet-domain-name-functions).

Well, in the end, let's quote the functionary of the ICANN corporation:

"One of the key tasks of ICANN is to support the stable, reliable, and secure operation of the Internet, as well as its connectivity on a global scale," says Joe Ebley, Director of the DNS Group at ICANN Corporation. "Adding an additional L-Root node is an important step to complete this task." 

It seems that the root DNS servers are gradually moving out of the American continent, I wonder why this would happen?

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