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How did the Rothschilds become the most powerful Bankers?

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After the fall of Napoleon, the Rothschild banking house paid French reparations to London, Vienna, and Berlin in the amount of 120 million pounds, of course, for fat interest. Through their own hands flowed the financial resources that the British government provided to Vienna as material compensation for losses in the war against Napoleon. Therefore, in 1817, the Imperial Court of Vienna graciously made it clear to the Rothschilds that they deserved a reward. The court councilor von Lederer, who was in charge of awarding imperial awards and decorations, made a proposal to stay in Folkestone, and at dawn on June 20, he already knew from his courier that Napoleon had lost the battle of Waterloo. The Rothschild courier was eight hours ahead of everyone else, even the Duke of Wellington's own courier.

And Nathan Rothschild first reported Napoleon's defeat to the British government and then went to the stock exchange. Any middle-class banker, with such information in his hands, would have used all his money to buy up the debt securities of the British government loan. Anyone but Nathan Rothschild! He, on the contrary, sold the bonds of the British government loan. In huge numbers. Without saying a word. Just stood in his usual place on the stock exchange at the column, which has since been called the "Rothschild column", and sold, sold… A rumor spread through the stock exchange: "Rothschild sells!" Means he knows something! So the Battle of Waterloo is lost?! And London's Rothschild continued to throw more and more packages of British government securities on the stock market. And only then, after waiting for the right moment, when the government securities fell to the lowest level, but the stock exchange had not yet woken up, did he buy back everything that he had just sold in one fell swoop. But already for a tiny part of their face value. A few hours later, the exchange received the official news of Napoleon's defeat. And the price of British government bonds soared again. To an unattainable height. The Rothschild banking house raked in literally countless profits.

Frederick Morton, one of the chroniclers of the dynasty, 140 years later commented on these events:: "It is incalculable how many castles, racing stables, paintings by Watteau, Rembrandt he earned for his descendants on this day."

After the fall of Napoleon, the Rothschild banking house paid French reparations to London, Vienna, and Berlin in the amount of 120 million pounds, of course, for fat interest. Through their own hands flowed the financial resources that the British government provided to Vienna as material compensation for losses in the war against Napoleon. Therefore, in 1817, the Imperial Court of Vienna graciously made it clear to the Rothschilds that they deserved a reward. Court Councilor von Lederer, who was in charge of presenting imperial awards and promotions, made a proposal to sell the Rothschilds a snuffbox made of gold with the emperor's diamond monogram on the lid. In response, the Rothschilds delicately informed the court that they had plenty of diamonds of their own, it would be better if they were granted the nobility. The government gasped, but von Lederer advised the emperor: "Given that the Rothschild brothers are Jews, we will place them at the lowest level of the nobility." So the Rothschilds received from Vienna the right to write their last name with the prefix von.

They invited the brothers to present the project of their family coat of arms to the court. The brothers were brave people and sent to the imperial chancellery such a project of the noble coat of arms, which could be envied by the crown princes. On this coat of arms was everything in the world — from an eagle to a leopard, from a lion to a bundle of five golden arrows held in the hand, which symbolized the unanimity of the five brothers. In addition, they designed around the coat of arms to draw warriors with crowns on their heads and in armor. The terrified "heraldic office" wrote to the Minister of Finance that the Rothschilds ' proposed draft coat of arms could not be approved, because, according to the laws of heraldry, the coat of arms of ordinary nobles should not depict either crowns, lions, or eagles. Then the chancellery officials took up their pens and drew a new coat of arms, made by order of the Rothschilds for such a large amount of money.

A little later, on September 23, 1822, the Rothschild banking house granted Metternich a personal loan of 900,000 gold florins for a period of seven years at very favorable interest rates. And immediately, in just five days, by imperial decree, all five Rothschild brothers were elevated to the rank of barons, and the bureaucrats from the "heraldic office", gnashing their teeth, were allowed to depict on the coat of arms everything that the Rothschilds had previously depicted on their coat of arms project: the eagle, the lion, and the battle helmet.

So to this day, the coat of arms received by the grace of Metternich is emblazoned on paper for personal correspondence of members of the Rothschild banking house.

In London, in the first decades after the fall of Napoleon and for many generations to come, the interests of the British state were closely intertwined with those of the Rothschilds. (The Bank of England still carries out some of its gold transactions through the Rothschild banking house. In the London office of the state bank on the third floor, there are representatives of five major banking houses, including a representative of the Rothschild Bank. They are the ones who determine the gold exchange rate on the English stock exchange for each day.)

One of the Rothschild brothers, James, who had settled in France and was the protagonist of Wellington's gold-smuggling stunt, now served as Consul General of the Austrian Empire in Paris. In 1828, he bought the magnificent palace of Napoleon Fouche, the Minister of Police, on Rue Laffitte. (When asked why he chose this particular palace, James Rothschild replied:: "Because this same Fouche was sniffing out my tracks in the Wellington case and almost arrested me.") To this day, this palace is the supreme headquarters of the Rothschilds in France.

The poet Heine was several times a guest at the house in the Rue Laffitte, but his freedom-loving nature did not really tolerate the general kneeling before the golden calf, and Heine wrote:: "I watched people bow down and humiliate themselves in front of him. They bend their spines in a way that no great acrobat could. Moses, finding himself in the holy land, took off his shoes. And I am sure that these business agents would also have run barefoot to the palace if they weren't afraid that the smell of their feet would be unpleasant to the baron... Today I saw a footman dressed in gold livery walking along the corridor with the baron's chamber pot. A stock speculator was standing in the corridor. In front of such an important vessel, he even took off his hat. I have memorized the man's name because in time he will definitely become a millionaire..."

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Heine did not bow down to the golden calf. James Rothschild was once hosting a dinner party for some of his fellow bankers. After dinner, he invited both Heine and cognac for coffee, no doubt to amuse the bankers with the brilliance of his wit. But the poet returned the invitation with this postscript: "Dear Monsieur le Baron, I am in the habit of drinking coffee after dinner at the place where I dined..."

Well, Vienna was, of course, a special case, given that the Rothschilds faced stricter anti-Jewish laws and regulations here than in England or France. Jews in Austria were not allowed to own land, hold public office, or carry out political tasks.

The dominance of the Austrian police was so strong that the Rothschilds, in order to avoid possible troubles, did not even try to send a representative to the famous Vienna Congress, convened by the Allies to discuss issues related to the victory over Napoleon. In London and Paris they were already "kings," and in Vienna they did not even dare to approach a mere minister.

And yet the Vienna Rothschilds also broke through the bureaucratic slingshots of the Austrian monarchy, found their way to the all-powerful Metternich and the baronial coat of arms decorated with a crown and eagles.

On behalf of the Rothschild brothers, Solomon Rothschild came to Vienna in 1819. Because of the "restrictive law", he could not own his own house here, so he first rented a room in the hotel "Roman Emperor". First of all, he arranged a state loan of 50 million florins for the Austrian government. This loan with Rothschild as a guarantor was a huge success, the initiator himself earned $ 6 million on it. The Vienna court also earned several millions. After this government loan, Solomon Rothschild began to rent an entire floor of the Roman Emperor, then, after a few months, another floor, and so on, until finally the entire hotel was leased to him. Although he still had no legal right to be a landlord.

The success of the government loan was followed by a deft management of the subsidies that were given to Vienna by the BritishRussian bankers. And finally, Rothschild "checks out" another rather delicate "family business". The heroine of this story is Marie-Louise, the daughter of the Emperor of Austria, the rejected wife of Napoleon I. The Congress of Vienna recognized Marie-Louise as a "victim of Napoleon" and gave the Duchy of Parma to the Austrian princess who was abandoned by her husband, and Metternich — an aristocratic lover in the person of the courtier von Neipperg. Soon the princess was married in secret to Neipperg, so secretly that the children from this marriage were not even registered for a long time. Nevertheless, the children were still grandsons of the Emperor of Austria, and so Metternich instructed Solomon Rothschild to quietly sell part of the Duchy of Parma, and then invest the money in something more profitable, so that the illegitimate grandchildren would gradually have a nice inheritance.

Rothschild carried out this task, and from that day on, he and Metternich, as his ally, ruled Austria together. Well, from here it was only one step to the aforementioned gold loan of 900 thousand florins and to the baron's coat of arms decorated with a crown, eagle and lion.

In 1835, Emperor Franz died, and Metternich, fearing that the stock market panic would shake the very foundations of the Austrian economy and his personal position, again turned to Solomon Rothschild for help. And he, along with his Parisian brother James Rothschild, publicly made an official offer: if someone would like to sell bonds of the Austrian state loan, the banking houses of the Vienna and Paris Rothschilds are ready to buy them for any, the highest price. European stock exchanges have calmed down. Rothschild once again provided assistance to Metternich, who was experiencing temporary difficulties. (Here are a few lines from a letter from the Austrian Ambassador in Paris to Metternich:"I must confess to you, Mr. Chancellor, that as a result of the astonishingly strong influence of the Rothschild banking house, the financial panic that was already beginning to take hold of some nervous depositors was nipped in the bud.") Together, shoulder to shoulder, Metternich and Rothschild stood in the revolutionary storm of 1848. (Metternich then wrote to Solomon Rothschild: "If the devil takes me, he will take me away.")I'll take you with me.")

On the evening of March 13, the devil came to "pick up" Metternich: a revolutionary mob publicly burned his portraits in the streets of Vienna. Twenty hours later, Metternich fled to Frankfurt. Here he pocketed a thousand gold florins, which were presented to him by the Austrian Rothschild with a cheque drawn to the Rothschild banking house in Frankfurt. A few months later, Rothschild's apartment at the Roman Emperor Hotel was also broken into by an angry mob, and Rothschild also — at least temporarily — fled to Frankfurt.

He was the "absolute banker of the absolute chancellor", a symbol of the oppression of the Habsburg dynasty. Well, such connections are exceptionally strong. Prince Metternich, a living descendant of the legendary Chancellor Metternich, sends Baron Eli Rothschild a case of Rhenish wine every year to Paris, and the latter, in turn, responds with a case of Chateau Laffite from the cellars of world-famous vineyards. And it's not just wine that travels. Western magazines in the "Public Chronicle" section note every year that members of the Rothschild and Metternich families visit each other in their family castles.

In Rome, in 1832, there was even a caustic pamphlet that was distributed on the streets of the city. The text read: "Rothschild has just kissed the pope's hand, and as he said goodbye, he expressed in the most refined way his satisfaction with the deeds of the vicar of St. Peter on earth. It was not the Holy Father's shoe that Rothschild received for a kiss, but the whole little finger on his hand, so that the moneybags would not have to bow too low."

The evil pamphlet was preceded by the following event: the fourth (Italian) of the Rothschild brothers, Karl, was still the owner of the largest banking house in Naples at that time. Through his brothers, Charles convinced Metternich that the Austrians should withdraw their troops from the Kingdom of Naples. Karl Rothschild gave money to a Tuscan duke to drain the giant swamps. He also provided the Pope with a loan to modernize agriculture in his domain. And Pope George XVI, by accepting the loan, not only allowed Rothschild to avoid too deep a bow, but also granted the Italian Rothschild the Grand Cross of the Order of St. George.

In Germany, meanwhile, the fifth of the brothers, Amschel Rothschild, was considered the head of the dynasty. He was the herald of the entire clan and appealed to the rulers of European countries for orders and consulships. The House of Frankfurt coordinated the entire international strategy of the dynasty. There was not a single investment in the land between the Rhine and the Danube that Amschel did not have a hand in. Hundreds of German factories, railways and highways in Germany were born first in the rooms of the Rothschild house in Frankfurt. And in the garden of this house, Otto von Bismarck, a young Prussian who would later become Chancellor of the German Empire, had long been a frequent chosen guest. In 1851, when Prussia sent Bismarck as its representative to the All-German conference, Amschel became treasurer of the "federation of German states", and this (as one of his biographers Markus Eli Ravage writes in the book "Five Men from Frankfurt")

this meant, in a sense, that he became finance minister later than the German Empire, which was born out of the "federation".

The dynastic "marriage policy" of the Rothschild clan was also directed from Frankfurt. According to the" clan constitution", sons of the house of Rothschild were required to marry girls from distant branches of the Rothschild family, and girls from the house of Rothschild were required to marry aristocrats whenever possible. In London, the daughter of Nathan Rothschild became the wife of Lord Southampton. One of his nieces, also from the house of the French Rothschilds, is the wife of the Earl of Rosebery. Her husband later became Prime Minister of the British Empire. A girl from the house of the Neapolitan Rothschilds married the Duc de Gramont, and her sister married the Duke of Wagram.

The third marriage law of the House of Rothschild stipulated that all weddings were to be played in a Frankfurt house. And the aristocrats who married girls from the house of Rothschild were forced to obey these inconvenient rules. Luxury carriages usually did not fit in the narrow streets of the Jewish ghetto, and guests trudged on foot through the cobblestone streets, and the trains of ladies swept the dusty pavement. This law remained in force until Amschel Rothschild died at the age of 80.

The fact that the history of the House of Rothschild was so intertwined with the history of Europe in its most important turns was played by the ability of the Rothschilds to quickly gather information. And if necessary — and spread misinformation. This is best illustrated by the example of a courier reporting the outcome of the Battle of Waterloo.

In February 1820, the Rothschilds were the first to learn that the sole heir of Louis XVIII of France had been murdered in front of the Paris Opera House. With it, the Bourbons ' hopes of returning to the throne died. James Rothschild's messengers were the first to arrive in London, Vienna, Frankfurt, and Naples, and the Rothschilds were able to profitably play off the collapse of the Bourbon succession on the stock exchanges even before the government or Rothschild's competitors received information about what had happened.

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Ten years later, the Rothschilds of Paris, using specially bred carrier pigeons, were the fastest to inform their brothers who owned banking houses in different countries about the beginning of the July Revolution in France. In England, the Rothschild banking house in London learned before the British government that Louis Philippe had ascended the French throne. A major figure in European diplomacy, Talleyrand wrote about this in a letter he sent to Louis-Philippe's sister: "The Rothschilds always inform the British government about events 10 to 12 hours earlier than the royal ambassadors. This is because the Rothschild couriers use special sea vessels that are not allowed to transport anyone other than these couriers, and go on a journey across the English Channel regardless of the weather."

In the book" The Rothschilds: A Family Portrait", historian F. Morton writes that the Rothschild courier service was more reliable than that of any great power. Therefore, it often happened that the ambassadors of England, France, and Spain, who were accredited in various European countries, trusted them with their own embassy mail. The Austrian secret Police reported to Chancellor Metternich (who noted for himself) that couriers from Naples to Paris were traveling through the city of Piacenza. "There is an Austrian garrison here, and therefore," read the police report, " it may be necessary to try to persuade couriers to show us the letters they carry for inspection."

Metternich's friendship with the Rothschilds, of course, did not prevent the Austrian Chancellor from ordering a search of the couriers, and the Rothschilds, for their part, from deceiving the Chancellor. Metternich gave instructions to the Austrian garrisons in Italy: consider Rothschild couriers as "official Austrian couriers" only if they carry letters sealed with the imperial seal. In other cases, print out all emails and censor them. The Rothschilds responded to the Chancellor's order by creating a second, parallel courier network. The couriers of this network had no other task than to allow themselves to be detained and let the mail that was with them be checked. The letters were opened before their eyes, but of course they contained misinformation. The Austrian police diligently forwarded this misinformation to Metternich.

After all this, is it any wonder that in 1870 Napoleon III, with the help of the French and English Rothschilds, tried to find out whether the British government was ready to help France in the event of an attack by Prussia? London's Rothschild, along with English Prime Minister Gladstone, appeared at an audience with English Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle. After this audience, the British government decided not to help France. Thus, the French Rothschilds learned earlier than Napoleon III himself that the Franco-Prussian war would begin in 1870. And, of course, they directed their financial policies accordingly.

After the collapse of France, Emperor Wilhelm I, Moltke and Bismarck established their high command headquarters in one of the Rothschild castles in France, Ferry. The emperor walked around the entire castle, garden, stables, greenhouses and finally said: "The King will not be able to pay for such wealth. Only Rothschild can do that."

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